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The Eye: Its Anatomy and How it Works

Your eyes provide 30% of the input to the brain while you’re awake. Below is a quick review on basic anatomy.

Anatomy of the Eye

In the diagram below, light is coming into the schematic eye from right to left.



Eye Diagrom

Image Credit: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health

How the Eye Works

Light passes through the clear cornea, where 2/3 of the focusing (or “refractive”) power of the eye exists, then into the pupil, then through the lens, where the other 1/3 of the focusing power of the eye is.  The light travels through the vitreous gel, before it illuminates the retina, which contains the light sensing elements, or photoreceptors, the rods and cones.


The bulls-eye, or central part of the retina is the macula, and its center, the fovea.  This is some of the hardest-working tissue in the body.  Impulses of light gathered here are collected, are initially processed in the retina, and then sent along via the optic nerve on to the brain.

Two muscles of the eye, of which there is a total of six, are seen coming off the wall of the eye, above and below.  You can think of the main function of the whole movement system of the eye as keeping the incoming light on the macula!

Our brain then takes the pulses and creates the images we see.

Keep Your Eyes Healthy at Triangle Eye Physicians

Triangle Eye Physicians is an ophthalmology practice in Raleigh, NC. Our physicians are board certified as well as subspecialty graduates of anterior segment fellowhips.

We evaluate and treat ocular surface problems, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic eye disease.  We have a specialty clinic for dry eye.   We have extensive experience in consultative cataract eye surgery, premium lens implants, and refractive surgery, including  LASIK and PRK.    To schedule an exam or a  LASIK consultation, please call 919-256-2500 or fill out our online contact form.

Still have questions or concerns? Contact us to schedule your FREE Lasik evaluation and learn more.

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Monday - Thursday
8:00 am - 5:00 pm

8:00am - 12:00pm

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2406 Blue Ridge Road Suite 280 Raleigh, NC 27607 919-256-2500